Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) comprise a group of interrelated diseases characterized by development after gestation, widespread metastases, and high curability with chemotherapy. The good prognosis of GTDs is considered partly a result of the host immune response to paternal antigens expressed on trophoblastic cells. In this study, we review current understanding of the immunobiology of GTDs. First of all, we describe the microenvironment between trophoblastic cells and subpopulation of immune cells. Second, immunogenetics, immune microenvironment around abnormal trophoblast, and mechanism of GTDs escaping from maternal immune system surveillance were also discussed. Third, we propose the possible immunotherapy for persistent GTDs, particularly the vaccine designed on human chorionic gonadotrophin, which is generally accepted as a tumor marker for GTDs diagnosis. Due to the low incidence of GTDs and high response to chemotherapy, there have been few literatures about immunobiologic characteristics of GTDs compared with the other gynecologic malignancies, such as ovarian cancer, but the immunologic behavior of GTDs should be explored for further understanding of the etiology of these diseases and to help designing immunotherapeutic strategies for persistent GTDs.
- gestational trophoblastic disease
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