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Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience
  1. I.K.I El-Lamie*,
  2. H. M. El Sayed*,
  3. A. G. Badawie*,
  4. W. A. Bayomi,
  5. H. A. El-Ghazaly,
  6. A. E. Khalaf-Allah*,
  7. M. N. El-Mahallawy* and
  8. K. I. El-Lamie*
  1. *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Gynecologic Oncology Unit), Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology & Nuclear Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  1. Address correspondence and reprint request to: Ismail K.I. El-Lamie, MD, 3, El-Beyrouni street, Heliopolis 11341, Cairo, Egypt. Email: ismanino{at}; ismanino{at}


The aim of the current study is to evaluate the different treatment modalities used in the management of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) between June 1992 and December 2004 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University. Out of 261 patients diagnosed and treated for GTT, 70 (26.8%) were high risk metastatic patients based on the National Institutes of Health clinical classification. The mean age was 29.39 ± 9.38 years (16–55 years), with six patients (8.6%) being older than 39 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 79.74 ± 40.44 months (6–157 months). Forty patients (57.14%) were diagnosed after molar pregnancy, 22 (31.43%) after abortion, and 8 (11.43%) after term pregnancy. Forty-two patients (60%) were diagnosed within 4 months of the occurrence of the disease, and 28 (40%) were diagnosed after more than 4 months. Sixty-seven patients were treated using different regimens according to the protocol of treatment at that time. The MAC regimen was used initially but has been subsequently abandoned in favor of EMA-CO (etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine [Oncovin]) regimen, which was later modified by omitting the CO arm to decrease its toxicity. If resistance developed, platinum-based therapy was given in the form of EMA-EP. Recently, our unit incorporated paclitaxel in the third-line treatment. Surgical intervention was used selectively. Fifty-seven (81.4%) patients could be cured; 43 by initial chemotherapy, with a mean of 7 ± 0.46 courses (6–15), and 14 were salvaged by second- or third-line chemotherapy. Fourteen patients (20%) died during the study period; one was unrelated to GTT, while three died of acute respiratory distress syndrome before instituting proper therapy and two died of treatment complications. Using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, the presence of brain and/or liver metastases was found to be the worst prognostic variable affecting the survival, followed by resistance to combination chemotherapy and then the type of antecedent pregnancy. The projected 5-year survival as estimated by Kaplan–Meier method was 78%.

  • brain and/or liver metastases
  • EMA
  • EMA-EP
  • high-risk metastatic GTT

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  • The authors take full responsibility for the presented manuscript, which has never been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. In addition, there is no financial conflict of interest or involvement of any of the authors with any of the companies mentioned in the manuscript.

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