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Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya
  1. P. Gichangi*,
  2. B. Estambale,
  3. J. Bwayo,
  4. K. Rogo,
  5. S. Ojwang*,
  6. E. Njuguna§ and
  7. M. Temmerman
  1. *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  2. Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
  3. Nairobi Oncology Center, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
  4. §Radiotherapy Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
  5. International Center for Reproductive Health, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marleen Temmerman, MD, PhD, International Center for Reproductive Health, University Hospital, De Pintellan 185 P3, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Email: icrh{at}


Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

  • cervical cancer
  • HIV
  • Kenya

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