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Angiogenesis in gynecological oncology—mechanism of tumor progression and therapeutic targets
  1. K. K. RASILA*,
  2. R. A. BURGER,
  3. H. SMITH*,
  4. F. C. LEE* and
  1. *University of New Mexico Cancer Research and Treatment Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  2. †Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Claire Verschraegen, MD, The University of New Mexico Cancer Research and Treatment Center, 900 Camino de Salud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Email: cverschraegen{at}


The purpose of this article is to review the current literature pertaining to various angiogenic stimulators and angiogenesis inhibitors in gynecological malignancies and the relevance of these markers in the prognosis of these diseases. We also summarize the antiangiogenic drugs currently in development and in clinical use in gynecological oncology. The information was obtained from a computer search of MEDLINE for studies published in the English language regarding angiogenesis and angiogenesis inhibitors in gynecological malignancies between 1970 and December 2003; additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. In ovarian cancer, various different angiogenic activators have been found to correlate with microvessed density (MVD), stage, lymph node and peritoneal metastasis, and survival. In cervical cancer, correlation has been seen between increased angiogenic markers and stage, grade, tumor size, and survival. Studies in endometriat cancer show correlation of angiogenic markers with stage, grade, MVD, and survival. Whereas, in gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTD) only few markers have been studied, and some correlated with progression. Information on anti angiogenic drugs currently in ongoing and upcoming trials in gynecological malignancies is also presented. Angiogenesis factors may have a prognostic role to play in patients with gynecological cancers and should continue to be investigated as clinically useful tumor markers. Antiangiogenic-targeted therapies offer an attractive strategy for clinical investigation in gynecologic oncology.

  • anti angiogenic durgs
  • biologic agents
  • female neoplasms

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