The initial aim of this study was to examine the expression profiles of P53 and its upstream genes, downstream genes, and cell cycle regulators to determine whether these markers are useful for making a differential diagnosis among the benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. Between borderline and malignant tumors, the increased expression levels of P53, Bax, Cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 as well as the decreased expression levels of growth arrest and DNA damage (GADD45) and murine double minute-2 (MDM2) were significantly associated with malignancy (P < 0.01, each). Using the receiver operating curve (ROC), the most reliable cutoff value of the added-up staining scores of those markers was 4.5 with 79% sensitivity and 89% specificity for malignancy. Between benign and borderline tumors, the P21 and Bax expression levels were significantly higher in borderline tumors, whereas the Bcl-2 expression level was much higher in benign tumors (P < 0.01, each). Using the ROC, the cutoff value of the added-up staining scores used to discriminate between the two groups was 2.5 with 70% sensitivity and 74% specificity for borderline tumors. Thus, for the differential diagnosis between borderline and malignant tumors, the cutoff value 4.5 of the cumulative staining scores can be used. However, the cutoff value 2.5 for discrimination between benign and borderline tumors may not be useful because of its relatively low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the P53, GADD45, Cyclin E, and MDM2 expression levels in malignant ovarian tumors might be useful for determining the histologic grade and type.
- expression profiling
- ovarian epithelial tumor
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