The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively cytologic screening for cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix and to research whether biopsy is overused among women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We examined 28 469 smears obtained over 5 years. The patients were referred when the result of the smear was abnormal for a colposcopic biopsy, endocervical curettage, or a repeat Papanicolaou smear. The results of the screening of 28 469 smears are as follows: 699 (2.45%) ASCUS, 67 (0.23%) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 43 (0.15%) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), 1 epidermoid carcinoma, 31 (0.10%) atypical glandular cells, and 1 adenocarcinoma. Histologic examination of the cervix was done in 119 patients (17.0%) of ASCUS, 13 patients (10.9%) of LGSIL, and 15 patients (12.6%) of HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the 119 women with histological examination, histologic examination was generally performed in patients with ASCUS neoplastic Papanicolaou smear, and histologic diagnosis of low-grade, high-grade, or invasive lesion of the cervix was made in 23.5% of women with ASCUS; in these patients, 46.4% were cytologic LGSIL and 53.5 % were cytologic HGSIL and cervical carcinoma. In the aspect of these findings, we concluded that for patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ASCUS, more aggressive interventions should be performed
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