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Chemoprevention and vaccines: a review of the nonsurgical options for the treatment of cervical dysplasia
  1. M. C. Bell* and
  2. R. D. Alvarez
  1. * The University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD
  2. The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Maria C. Bell, MD, 1500 W 22nd Street, Suite 301, Sioux Falls, SD. 57105. Email: bellm{at}


Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease is a significant health problem in the United States and throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Standard treatment to date has been surgical excision, but we ask the question “For what other clinically evident, virally mediated disease is the standard of treatment surgery?” The authors performed a systematic literature review and selected articles most relevant to the topic. This article reviews prevention, chemoprevention, and vaccine trials for the prevention and treatment of HPV-related disease of the genital tract. Significant advances have been made in the last decade, and the future holds promise for effective nonsurgical options for the patients with cervical dysplasia and other HPV-associated diseases.

  • human papillomavirus
  • chemoprevention
  • vaccine

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