Objective The purpose of this study is to review all reported cases of laparoscopic port-site metastases in patients with gynecological malignancies. Potential etiologies as well as options for prevention are discussed.
Methods We searched the Medline database for English-language articles presenting raw data on laparoscopic port-site metastases in patients with gynecological malignancies.
Results We found 31 articles describing port-site metastases in 58 patients. Forty patients had low malignant potential (seven patients) or invasive ovarian carcinoma (33 patients). The median age of these patients was 50 years (range: 22–79), and 83% had advanced (stage III or IV) disease. Seventy-one percent of the patients (24 of 34) had ascites, and 97% (29 of 30) had carcinomatosis. Seventy-five percent of the laparoscopic procedures in this group were performed for diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis of port-site metastases was 17 days (range: 4–730). Seventy-one percent of port-site recurrences (15 of 21) were isolated to a tissue-manipulating port. Twelve patients had port-site metastases after laparoscopy for cervical cancer. The median age was 44 years (range: 31–74). Eighty percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma. In 75% of the patients, laparoscopy was performed for therapeutic purposes. The median time to diagnosis of port-site metastases was 5 months (range: 1.5–19). Four patients had port-site metastases after laparoscopy for uterine cancer. The median age was 63 years (range: 56–72). The median time to diagnosis of metastases was 13.5 months (range: 6–21). Half of the recurrences were in the tissue-manipulating port. Port-site metastases after laparoscopy were reported for one patient each with a diagnosis of fallopian tube carcinoma and vaginal carcinoma.
Conclusions Laparoscopic port-site metastases are a potential complication of laparoscopy in patients with gynecological malignancies, even in patients with early-stage disease.
- cervical cancer
- fallopian tube cancer
- ovarian cancer
- port-site metastases
- uterine cancer
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