Epithelial ovarian carcinoma rarely occurs because of a single event. Therefore, no single biological tumor factor will give accurate prognostic information for all ovarian cancer patients. On the other hand, a combination of two or more independent factors may yield an improved overall prognostic index. Because FIGO stage is included in most of the previously presented models, inaccurate surgical staging in patients with apparently early disease has been a problem. In a series of 226 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinomas in FIGO stages IA–IIC, a number of clinicopathological factors (age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, and tumor grade) were studied in relation to the biological factors p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), important regulators of the apoptosis and mitosis. Immunohistochemical techniques were used. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy after the primary surgery. Expression of p53 was significantly associated with the tumor grade and disease-free survival (DFS). EGFR expression was also associated with DFS. In a Cox multivariate analysis, tumor grade, p53 status, and EGFR status were all independent and significant prognostic factors with regard to DFS. A prognostic model was proposed using these factors. A low-risk group, an intermediate-risk group, and a high-risk group were defined. DFS amounted to 89% in the low-risk group (grades 1–2, p53-negative, and EGFR-negative), 66% in the intermediate-risk group (grade 3, p53-negative, and EGFR-negative or grades 1–2, p53-positive or EGFR-positive) and 39% in the high-risk group (grade 3, p53-positive, and EGFR-positive).
- ovarian cancer
- prognostic model
- tumor grade
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